This translation by Ian Johnston of Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, BC, has certain copyright restrictions. For information please use the following link: Copyright. For comments or question please contact Ian Johnston. Last revised January 2009; last reformatted May 2014.

Those who would like a version of this text in a Word file so that they can produce booklets of the play for themselves or their students should contact Ian Johnston. There is no charge for these files

This translation is now available as a paperback book from Richer Resources Publications.



In numbering the lines in the following English text, the translator has normally included short indented lines with the short line immediately above it, so that the two partial lines count as a single line in the reckoning. The line numbers in square brackets refer to the Greek text. The numbers in the text provide links to notes at the end of the translation.

The translator would like to acknowledge the extremely valuable help of W. B. Stanford’s commentary on the play and of the translation of Sir Richard Jebb.


When Achilles, the finest of all the warriors in the Achaean army, was killed in the Trojan War, there was a dispute about which warrior should receive the high honour of getting Achilles’ weapons. There were two main claimants, Odysseus and Ajax. The latter was, according to Homer, the best warrior after Achilles. However, as a result of voting among the leading warriors, the weapons were awarded to Odysseus. The action of Sophocles’ play takes place the day after this decision.

Note that Sophocles calls the Greek forces the ArgivesAchaeans, or Danaans, as in Homer, and occasionally the Hellenes (Greeks).


ATHENA: goddess of war and wisdom
ODYSSEUS: king of Ithaca, a leader in the Argive forces at Troy
AJAX: king of Salamis
CHORUS: sailors from Salamis 
TECMESSA: daughter of the king of Phrygia, concubine of Ajax
MESSENGER: a soldier 
TEUCER: a Greek warrior, half brother of Ajax
MENELAUS: one of the commanders of the Argive forces at Troy
AGAMEMNON: brother of Menelaus, commander of the Greek army
EURYSACES: young son of Ajax and Tecmessa.

[The action takes place during the last year of the Trojan War. The scene is one end of the Argive camp beside the sea, outside Ajax’s hut. The hut is a substantial building with main doors facing the audience and some side doors. There are steps leading up to a platform outside the main doors. It is early in the morning, without very much light yet. ODYSSEUS enters slowly, tracking footprints in the sand and trying to look through the partially open door into the hut. The goddess ATHENA appears and speaks to ODYSSEUS.]

      Odysseus, I keep seeing you prowl around,
      seeking by stealth to gain the upper hand
      against your enemies. And now, by these huts
      at one end of the army, where Ajax
      has his camp beside the ships, for some time
      I’ve been observing as you track him down,
      keeping your eyes fixed on his fresh-made trail,
      to find out whether he’s inside or not.
      Like a keen-nosed Spartan hunting dog,
      your path is taking you straight to your goal—
      the man has just gone in, his head and arms
      dripping with sweat after the butchery
      he’s just carried out with his own sword.
      So you don’t need to peer inside the doors.
      What are you so eager to discover here?
      Why not tell me? You could learn the answer
      from someone who knows.

ODYSSEUS [looking up but he cannot see Athena]
                                   Ah, Athena’s voice, of the gods
      the one I cherish most. How clear you sound.
      I can’t see you, but I do hear your words—
      my mind can grasp their sense, like the bronze call
      of an Etruscan trumpet.
2 And you are right.
      You see me circling around, tracking down
      that man who hates me, shield-bearing Ajax.
      I’ve been following his trail a long time now—
      just him, no one else. During the night
      he’s done something inconceivable to us,
      if he’s the one who did it. We’re not sure.
      We don’t know anything for certain
      So I volunteered to find out what’s gone on.
      We’ve just discovered all our livestock killed—
      our plunder butchered by some human hand,
      and with them the men who guard the herd.
      Everyone blames Ajax for the slaughter.
      What’s more, an eyewitness who saw him
      striding by himself across the plain, his sword
      dripping with fresh blood, informed me of it
      and told me what he saw. I ran off at once
      to pick up his trail. I’m following the tracks.
      But it’s confusing—sometimes I don’t know
      whose prints they are. So you’ve come just in time,
      for in the past and in the days to come
      your hand has been and will remain my guide.

      I am aware of that, Odysseus, that’s why
      for some time I’ve been keen to come to you
      as a watchman on your hunt.

                                                Well then, dear lady,  
      will what I’m doing here have good results?

      I’ll tell you this: Ajax did those killings,
      as you suspected.

                                             Why would he do that?
      Why turn his hands to such a senseless act?

      The weapons—that armour from Achilles—
      it made him insanely angry.

                                                                 But then
      why would he slaughter all the animals?

      He thought he was staining both his hands
      with blood from you.

                                              You mean this was his plan
      against the Argives?

                     Yes—and it would have worked,
      if I had not been paying attention.

      How could he have done something so reckless?
      How could his mind have been so rash?

                                                                         At night
      in secret he crept out alone after you.

      How close was he? Did he get to his target?

      He reached the camp of both commanders—
      he made it right up to their double gates.

      If he was so insanely keen for slaughter,
      how could he prevent his hands from killing?

      I stopped him. I threw down into his eyes
      an overwhelming sense of murderous joy
      and turned his rage against the sheep and cattle
      and those protecting them—the common herd
      which so far has not been divided up.
      He launched his attack against those animals
      and kept on chopping down and slaughtering
      the ones with horns by slicing through their spines,
      until they made a circle all around him.
      At one point he thought he was butchering
      both sons of Atreus—he had them in his hands.
      Then he went at some other general
      and then another. As he charged around
      in his sick frenzy, I kept encouraging him,
      kept pushing him into those fatal nets
.                                                                    [60]
      And then, when he took a rest from killing,
      he tied up the sheep and cattle still alive
      and led them home, as if he had captured
      human prisoners and not just animals.
      Now he keeps them tied up in his hut
      and tortures them. I’ll let you see his madness—
      in plain view here—so you can witness it
      and then report to all the Argives. Be brave.
      Do not back off or look upon this man
      as any threat to you. I will avert his eyes,
      so he will never see your face
.                                                                                      [70]

[Calling to Ajax inside the hut]

                                                             You in there—                                  90
      the one who’s tying up his prisoner’s arms—
      I’m calling you! I’m shouting now for Ajax!
      Come on out here! Outside the hut! In front!

      Athena! What are you doing? Don’t call him!
      Don’t bring him out here!

                                                               Just be patient.
      Don’t run the risk of being called a coward.

      For the gods’ sake, don’t do it! Leave him be!
      Let him stay inside!

                                    What’s the matter with you?
      He was just a man before this, wasn’t he?

      Yes, and in the past unfriendly to me,
      and especially now.

                                          But the sweetest laughter
      comes from mocking enemies. Is that not true?

      Still, I’d prefer he stayed inside his hut
.                      [80]

      You hesitate to see before your eyes
      someone in a raving fit?

                                                          Yes, I do—
      if he were fully sane I’d not avoid him
      or hesitate . . .

                                   But he won’t see you now,
      not even if you stand beside him.

      How will that occur, if he still can see
      with his own eyes?

                       His eyes see very well,
      but I will make them dark.

                                                           Well, it is true
      a god’s work can make all things possible.

      Stand here, then, and stay quiet.

                                                                        I’d better stay,
      although I’d have preferred to keep my distance.

      You in there, Ajax! I’m calling you again!   
      Why show your ally so much disrespect?
7                        [90]

[AJAX enters from the hut. He is carrying a bloody whip with which he has been lashing the cattle]

      Welcome Athena! Welcome child of Zeus!
      You have given me so much assistance!
      In gratitude for those I’ve captured
      I’ll offer you a crown, presents of pure gold
.   120

      That’s nobly spoken. But tell me this—
      did that sword of yours slake itself on blood
      when you attacked the Argive army?

      That I can boast about. I don’t deny it.

      You went after the two sons of Atreus
      with that weapon in your fist?

                                                           Indeed I did.
      They’ll not dishonour Ajax any more.

      So, as I understand you, those men are dead.

      Yes, dead. Let them rob me of my weapons now!

      I see. Well, what about Laertes’ son?
      As far as you’re concerned, where does he stand?
      Did he escape you?

                                                   That damned slimy fox!
      You ask me where he is?

                                               Yes, I’m asking.
      I mean that enemy of yours Odysseus.

      My favourite prisoner, lady, sits inside.
      I don’t want him to die just yet.

                                                               But when?
      What further actions do you have to do?
      Or what advantage will you gain by that?

      Not before he’s tied up to a pillar,
      the main one holding up the roof in there
.       140

      What harm will you inflict on the poor man?

      I’ll whip his back blood red. Then I’ll kill him
.                     [110]

      Don’t abuse the poor man so viciously.

      You can follow your desires, Athena,
      in all other things. That I will concede.
      But this is the penalty he’s going to pay—
      not something else.

                                         All right, since it pleases you, 
      give that arm of yours some exercise. Don’t stop.
      Do what you’ve planned.

                                         Then I’ll get back to work.
      And I’ll leave you with this request from me— 
      always stand beside me as my ally
      the way you did today.

[AJAX goes back into the hut]

                                                                 Do you see,
      Odysseus, how powerful the gods can be?
      Could you find anyone more sensible
      than Ajax, a man with more ability 
      to carry out in every situation     
      the most appropriate action?

           No one I know.
      All the same, although he despises me,
      I pity his misfortune under that yoke
      of catastrophic madness. It makes me think
      not just of his fate but my own as well.
      I see that in our lives we are no more
      than phantoms, insubstantial shadows.

      Well then, now you’ve seen his arrogance,
      make sure you never speak against the gods,
      or give yourself ideas of your own grandeur,
      if your strength of hand or heaped-up riches
      should outweigh some other man’s. A single day
      pulls down any human’s scale of fortune
      or raises it once more
. But the gods love   170
      men who possess good sense and self-control
      and despise the ones who are unjust.

[ATHENA and ODYSSEUS leave. Enter the CHORUS, sailors from Salamis and followers of Ajax]

      Son of Telamon, who holds the throne
      on wave-washed Salamis beside the sea,
      I rejoice with you when things go well,
      but when a blow from Zeus or angry words
      from slanderous Danaans are aimed at you,
      then I hold back in fear and shake with terror,
      like the fluttering eye on a feathered dove
.8                     [140]
      I’m like that now. In the night that’s passing,
      there were noisy rumours thrown against us,
      against our honour, saying that you went off
      into that meadow where our horses range
      and massacred Danaan animals,
      together with the spoils their spears had captured,
      prizes which had not yet been allotted.
      With that bright sword of yours you butchered them.
      Such slanderous reports Odysseus shapes
      and whispers into every soldier’s ear
.                     [150]
      Many men believe him. For he now speaks   
      persuasively about you, and everyone
      who listens is filled with spite and pleased
      that you have come to grief, even more
      than is the man who told them. Throw a spear
      at some great soul, and you will never miss,
      but if someone said things like that of me,
      he’d never be believed. Envy creeps up
      against the man of wealth and power.
      And yet without the great, we lesser men
      are fragile ramparts in our own defence
.     200
      It’s best for small men to ally themselves
      with greatness, and for the powerful 
      to be supported by the lesser men.
      But teaching foolish people such good sense
      ahead of time is just not possible.
      So men like this are now denouncing you,
      and we do not possess sufficient power
      to deflect these charges, not without you,
      not without our king. With you out of their sight,
      they keep on chattering like flocks of birds
.    210
      But if you unexpectedly appeared,
      they would be terrified, as if they faced
      a mighty eagle, and soon would cower there,
      and hold their tongues in silence.

      Was it that goddess Artemis, 
      bull-tending child of Zeus, 
      who drove you on, 
      drove you at the common herd?
      O mighty Rumour, mother of my shame!
      Was it perhaps in retribution for a victory    
      where she received no tribute, 
      splendid weapons she was cheated of?  
      Or did some hunter kill a stag 
      and set no gifts aside for her? 
      Or has Enyalios, bronze-plated god of war, 
      with reason to complain about an armed alliance,  
      taken his revenge for such an insult
      by a devious stratagem at night?

      For with your own mind, O son of Telamon,
      you’d never go so far along the path to ruin 
      as to attack the flocks. But nothing can prevent 
      a sickness which the gods implant
      I pray that Zeus, that Phoebus Apollo 
      will stave off this catastrophe,
      this disastrous rumour of the Argives.
      And if great kings are slandering you now
      with stories full of lies, or if it is that man
      born from the worthless line of Sisyphus,
      do not, my lord, take on the grievous weight
      of a dishonoured reputation by remaining here,
      hiding your presence in this hut beside the sea.

      Up now, get up from where you sit,
      wherever you’ve been settled for so long
      in your pause from battle. You are fuelling
      a fire of disaster blazing up to heaven.
      Your enemies’ insolence keeps charging on
      quite fearlessly, whipped up by favouring winds
      through forest thickets, while every soldier
      wags his tongue and laughs and jeers. 
      They bring us grief and reinforce our sorrow
.        250        [200]


      You men, shipmates of Ajax, sons of the race
      of earth-born Erechtheus, all of us
      who love the distant house of Telamon
      are in despair. For now our master Ajax,
      our great and terrifying and forceful king,
      lies suffering from tempestuous disease.

      What heavy grief has come during the night
      to change the troubles we had yesterday?
      Daughter of the Phrygian Teleutas,
      speak to us—though bold Ajax won you 
      fighting with his spear, he still maintains
      a strong affection for you, so you may know
      and offer us an answer.

                                               How can I tell
      a story much too terrifying for words? 
      You will hear of suffering as harsh as death.
      Last night madness seized our glorious Ajax,
      and now he has been totally disgraced.
      You can see everything inside his hut,
      the blood-soaked butchered victims who were killed    
      as sacrifices at his very hands
. 270        [220]

      The news you tell us of our fiery king
      we cannot bear, and yet there’s no escape.
      It’s what the powerful Danaans say,
      what their great story-telling spreads around.
      O, how I fear what’s coming next. This man
      is going to die—and in full public view—
      with a black sword in those mad hands of his
      he massacred the herd and herdsmen, too,
      the ones who ride to guard our animals.

      Alas! From those fields he came to me
      right after that, leading his captive beasts.
      On the floor in there he slit some of their throats,
      struck others in the ribs, tore them apart
      He grabbed two rams—the legs on both were white—
      cut off the head on one and sliced its tongue,
      right at the tip, then threw the parts away,  
      and lashed the other upright on the pillar
.                      [240]
      He seized a thick strap from a horse’s harness 
      and flogged it with a whistling double lash.
      He was cursing with an awful violence,
      not human words—ones a god had taught him.

      The time has come for us to hide our heads
      and steal away on foot—or take our seats,
      each man at his swift oar, and let our ship
      sail out on her seaworthy way. Those threats
      our two commanders, sons of Atreus,
      keep hurling at us are so serious,
      I am afraid of savage death by stoning,     
      sharing the suffering of the man in there,
      struck down with him now in the grip of fate,
      his own inexorable doom.

                                                              No, no.
      He is no longer like that. He’s grown calm.
      Like a sharp south wind that rushes past
      without a lightning flash, he’s easing off.
      Now he’s sane again, but in new agonies.
      To look at self-inflicted suffering
      when no one else played any part in it
      brings on great anguish.

                                          If he’s no longer mad,
      I’m confident that things may be all right.
      For when disaster has already passed  
      it doesn’t have as much significance.

      But if you had the choice of causing grief
      to your own friends while feeling good yourself
      or of grieving too, a suffering man
      among a common sorrow, which would you choose?

      The double grieving, lady, is far worse.

      So at this moment we, although not sick,
      are facing disaster.

                                     What does that mean? 
     I don’t understand what you are saying
.                       [270]

      That man in there, when he was still so ill,
      enjoyed himself while savage fantasies
      held him in their grip, but we were sane,
      and, since he was one of us, we suffered.
      But now there is a pause in his disease,
      he can recuperate and understand
      the full extremity of bitter grief,
      yet everything for us remains the same—
      our anguish is no milder than before.
      This is surely not a single sorrow,
      but a double grief?

                                                I think that’s true
.   330
      I fear a blow sent from a god has struck him.
      How else could this take place, if his spirit
      is no more hopeful now that he’s been cured
      than when he was sick?

                                        That’s how things stand.
      You must see that

                                             How did his illness start?
      How did this trouble first swoop down on him?
      Since we share your grief, tell us what happened.

      You are all involved in this, and so you’ll hear
      the entire story. At some point in the night,
      when the evening torches had stopped burning,
      Ajax took up his two-edged sword, resolved
      to set off on a senseless expedition.
      I challenged him and said, “What are you doing?
      Ajax, why are you going out like this?
      There’s been no summons, no messenger,
      nor any trumpet call. All the army
      is now sleeping.” His reply to me was brief,
      that old refrain, “Woman, the finest thing
      that females do is hold their tongues.” So I,
      taking my cue from that, did not respond,
      and he charged out alone. I cannot say
      what went on out there, but he came back
      and took his chained-up prisoners inside,
      all linked together—bulls and herding dogs
      and captured sheep. He cut the heads off some.
      He twisted back the skulls of other beasts
      and cut their throats or chopped their spines.
      Others, whom he kept tied up, he tortured,
      as if they were human beings, even though
      it was only beasts he was attacking
. 360
      At last, he charged out through the doorway
      and forced out some words of conversation
      with a shadow. Sometimes he’d talk about
      the sons of Atreus, at other times
      about Odysseus, with manic laughter
      at how by going out he had avenged
      all their arrogance in full. After that,
      he rushed back in the hut again and there
      he gradually regained his sense somehow,
      though not without an effort. Once he saw  
      his room filled up with that deluded slaughter,
      he struck his head and howled. Then he collapsed,
      a ruined man among so many ruins,
      carcasses of butchered sheep. He sat there,
      fists gripping his hair with nails clenched tight
.                 [310]
      For a long time he remained quite silent.
      Then he made some dreadful threats against me
      if I would not tell him every detail 
      of what had taken place. He questioned me—
      What on earth had he become involved with?
      My friends, I was afraid. So I told him
      everything that had gone on, all the things
      I knew were true. He at once began to groan,
      doleful sounds I’d never heard from him before.
      He’s always claimed that wailing cries like that
      were only fit for gloomy men and cowards
.                      [320]
      He used to grieve, but never wail aloud—
      just a deep moan, like from a lowing bull.
      But now, overwhelmed by his misfortune,
      he takes no food, no drink, sprawled in silence 
      where he fell down among dead animals
      his own sword killed. It seems clear enough
      he will do something bad. The words he speaks
      and his laments show that intent somehow.
      My friends, you should come in and help him,
      if that’s possible. That’s why I came out here.
      For words from friends can cure a man like him
.                       [330]

      Tecmessa, daughter of Teleutas, 
      what you’ve described to us about the man
      being driven mad with sorrow—that’s dreadful
.        400

AJAX [crying out from inside the hut]  
      Aaaiiii . . . Alas for me!

      It looks as if his fit could soon be worse.
      Did you not hear that loud cry from Ajax?

      Aaaiiii! . . . Alas!

      I think the man is sick or still suffering
      the effects of that disease he had before—
      they’re all around him where he sits.

      My child!  My son!

                                    How miserable I feel!
      Eurysaces, he’s calling you. But why?
      What does he have in mind? Where are you?
      I’m overwhelmed.

                                                            I call on Teucer!
      Where is Teucer? Will that fighting raid he’s on
      keep going forever, with me dying here?11   

      I think the man may have his wits again.
      Open the door. Perhaps when he sees me
      he’ll quickly feel a sense of self-respect.

TECMESSA [opening the door of the hut]
      There. It’s open. Now you can take a look
      at what he’s done and see the state he’s in.

[AJAX is revealed sitting among the dead animals]

      Ah, my cherished sailors, of all my friends
      the only ones who still observe true loyalty
.    420        [350] 
      You see how great a wave has just rolled over me,
      a crashing surge lashed on by murderous winds.

CHORUS LEADER [to Tecmessa]
      It looks as if what you told us is true—  
      his condition clearly shows his madness.

      Ah, you race of master mariners,
      who crossed the sea and with your oars sped out
      across the salty ocean, I see in you,
      and in you alone, the one support
      in my despair. Come, help me kill myself.

      No more of that! Speak words of hope
. 430
      Don’t seek to cure one bad thing with another
      or make this mad disaster any worse.

      Do you see how this bold and valiant heart,  
      this warrior so fearless in those wars
      against his enemies, has turned his hands,
      these awesome hands, against tame animals?
      Ah, the mockery! How I have been abused!

      I beg you, my lord Ajax, don’t say that.

      Just go away
. Why not turn your feet around
      and wander off somewhere?  Aaaaiiii . . .
. 440       [370]

      By the gods, concede. Use your common sense.

      It’s my bad luck I let slip from my grasp
      those criminals deserving punishment. 
      Instead I went at bulls with twisted horns,
      fine herds of goats, and made their dark blood flow.

      Why lament those deeds which have been done
      and cannot be recalled? Such final acts
      will never be anything but what they are.

      O you who keeps prying into everything,
      you nasty instrument for every crime,
  450        [380]
      Odysseus, the filthiest degenerate     
      in all the army, you must be laughing now,
      taking great delight in this.

                                                         Divine will 
      determines if each man laughs and cries.

                                                                        But still
      I’d like to face him, though I’m injured. Ahhhh . . . .

      Don’t make boasts like that. Do you not see
      the catastrophe you face?

                                                  O Zeus,
      you ancestral father of my father,
      if only I could die after I had killed
      that wheedling scoundrel enemy of mine
460        [390]
      and those twin-reigning kings.12  

                            When you make that prayer,
      pray also that I die as well. With you gone,
      why should I continue living?           

      O darkness, now my daylight,
      O gloom of Erebus, for me
      the brightest light there is,
      take me, take me now
      to live with you.13 Take me,
      a man no longer worthy to seek help
      from families of gods or men,
  470        [400]
      those creatures of a day. 
      For Zeus’ daughter, brave Athena,
      abuses and destroys me
      Where can one escape?
      Where could I go and rest?
      If my past fame has been cut down,
      along with these dead beasts beside me,
      then, my friends, if I now seek
      a madman’s triumphs, all the army,
      with repeated blows from their own swords 
      will cut me down as well.

      How hard it is for me to hear this man,
      this worthy man, say things he’d never say   
      before this happened!

      O you paths of the resounding sea!
      You tidal caves and coastal pastures,
      for a long time now, for far too long,
      you have detained me here in Troy.
      But that you will no longer do, no,
      not while I am breathing still
. 490
      Let men of sense be sure of that.
      O you streams of the Scamander,
      my neighbour, so friendly to the Argives,
      you no longer will be seeing Ajax,
      a man whose equal as a warrior—
      and I can make this boast—
      Troy never saw arriving here from Greece.
      But now I lie among this heap, dishonoured.14

      I don’t have the strength to stop your words
      or to let you go on saying such things—  
      you’ve fallen into such calamity.

      Alas!  Who would ever think my name
      would suit my troubles so poetically?15  
      For I could well cry out two or three times
      “Alas for Ajax!”—that shows the magnitude
      of the disaster I am going through.
      I am the man whose father’s excellence
      won supreme respect from all the army.
      He took the fairest prize and carried home
      every glory from the land of Ida.16 
      I am his son, who journeyed after him
      to this same land of Troy. I’m just as strong,
      with the work of my own hands I have attained 
      achievements just as great, but, as you see,
      these Argive insults have quite ruined me
.                      [440]
      And yet I think I can affirm this much—
      had Achilles lived and been about to judge
      the man who should receive his weapons,
      the prize for being the finest man in war,
      no soldier would have put his hand on them
      before I did. But now the sons of Atreus
      have dealt them to a fellow whose spirit
      will stoop to anything, and pushed aside   
      all those triumphant victories of Ajax
      If with my distorted mind and eyes,
      I had not abandoned what I planned,
      they would not have had what’s mine by right
      put to the vote against another man.17
      But then that goddess with the glaring eyes,
      implacable Athena, Zeus’ daughter,
      threw me over at the very instant
      I was steadying my hand against them.
      She hurled in me a frenzied sickness,  
      so blood from grazing beasts would stain my hands,
      and those men now can laugh at their escape,
      something I did not want. But when a god
      commits an injury, the unworthy man
      escapes someone more powerful. And now, 
      what do I do, when I am obviously
      hated by the gods, when the Greek army 
      despises me, and everyone in Troy
      and on the plain holds me an enemy?
      Should I give up my station in the fleet,
      leaving the sons of Atreus alone, 
      and sail for home across the Aegean Sea?
      How could I face my father, Telamon,
      when I arrive back there? How could he bear
      to see me showing up with nothing,
      without the prize for highest excellence
      with which he won his own great crown of fame?
      That’s not a thing I could endure to do.
      Well, then, should I charge out there on my own
      against the Trojan wall, a lone attack,                      
      fight single combats, do something valiant,
      and then at last be killed? But that would please
      the sons of Atreus. It must not happen
.                     [470]
      I must seek out some act which will reveal
      to my old father how, at least by nature,
      his own son has not become a coward.
      It is dishonourable for any man  
      to crave a lengthy life, once he discovers
      the troubles he is in will never change.
      What joy is there for him when every day 
      just follows on another, pulling him away
      or pushing him toward death? I would not pay
      for any sort of mortal man who’s warmed
      by futile hopes. A man of noble birth
      lives on with honour, or he dies in glory.
      Now you’ve heard everything I have to say
.                     [480]

      No one will ever claim that you, Ajax,
      have said a word that’s illegitimate,
      for what you say is born in your own heart.
      But you should stop. Get rid of thoughts like these
      Let friends overrule what you’re suggesting.

      O my lord Ajax, for human beings
      the worst of evils is what they endure
      when they’re compelled to. Consider me. 
      I was the daughter of a free-born father,
      a wealthy man, if anyone in Phrygia
      could be accounted rich. Now I’m a slave,
      a circumstance the gods somehow made happen—
      yes, the gods and especially your strong limbs
.                  [490]
      And thus, since I have come into your bed,                              
      I want the best for you. So I beg you,
      by Zeus who guards our home, by that bed
      where you had sex with me, do not leave me
      to the savage insults of your enemies
      Do not abandon me to some strange hand.
      For if you die and leave me all alone,
      that day you may be sure the Argive men
      will take me by force, as well as your own son
      We will then both lead the lives of slaves.
      One of our lords will speak these biting words,
      shooting insults at me, “Look here at this,
      a bed mate of Ajax, the strongest man
      in all our army. What menial chores she does!
      How she’s changed from such an enviable state!”    
      Men will talk that way, and then my fate
      will wear me down. Those shameful words will stain
      you and your family. Respect your father,
      whom you will leave a miserable old man.
      Respect your mother, too, who shares his years.
      She keeps begging the gods that you’re alive,                      
      that you’ll return back home. And, my lord, 
      have pity for your son. For if you die,
      consider how, whenever that day comes,
      both he and I will face desolation
      He will lack the nurturing a young lad needs
      if you leave and he becomes an orphan,
      in the care of people who are not friends 
      or from his family. And I have nothing
      I can look to except you. It was you
      who killed my homeland for me with your spear
      My mother and my father were destroyed
      by a different fate which led them down
      to make their home in Hades after death.18
      What country could I have except with you?  
      What wealth? My safety, all security,
      that rests with you. So remember me as well
.                       [520]
      A genuine man should cherish memory,
      if he gets pleasure still from anything.
      Kindness always engenders gratitude.
      A man who gives up his good memories                        
      will no longer be a noble, worthy man.

      Ajax, I wish that pity touched your heart,
      as it does mine. Then you’d approve her words.

      So far as I’m concerned, she’ll win approval
      only if she keeps being obedient
      and carries out my orders properly.

      Yes, beloved Ajax, I will obey 
      in everything.

                                   Then bring me my son,
      so I may see him.

                                        I sent him away,
      out of my care. I was so terrified.

      Afraid because I was in trouble?
      What do you mean?

                                     Yes, that’s it. I feared
      that the unlucky boy might bother you
      and then somehow get killed.

                                                  Yes, such a thing               
      the god who watches me would think fitting.

      At least I took a suitable precaution
      to stop that happening.

                                           I approve of that
.      640
      The steps you took were quite correct.

                                                                      And so,
      as things are now, how can I best serve you?

      Let me talk to him, see him face to face

      Yes. He’s close by, with servants watching him.

      Why then this delay?  Why is he not here?

TECMESSA [calling to the side]
      My son, your father is calling for you.
      Whichever of you servants has his hand,
      bring the boy out here.

                    Is he coming, the one you called?
      Or did he not hear?

                                     The servant’s on his way.
      He’s bringing Eurysaces with him
.     650

[Enter the SERVANT leading EURYSACES]

      Lift him up. Hand the boy to me up here.
      He’ll have no fear of fresh-spilt blood, no,
      not if he’s a true-bred son of mine            
      who shares his father’s nature. It is time
      he was broken in to that harsh code
      his father follows and his nature shaped
      to something like my own. O my boy,
      may you have better fortunes than your father,  
      although remain like him in other ways,
      for then you’ll never be dishonoured
.     660
      Now I envy you, and with good reason—
      for you have no idea of any troubles.
      The sweetest life comes when one senses nothing—  
      to lack all feeling is a painless evil—
      until you learn what joy and sorrow mean.
      Once you reach that stage, you must reveal
      the kind of man you are, your ancestry, 
      to those who were your father’s enemies.
      Meanwhile, you should feed on gentle breezes,
      fostering your young life so as to bring    
      your mother joy. I know that no Achaean
      will go at you with insults and contempt,
      even when I’m gone. For I am leaving Teucer  
      here with you as guardian of your gates.
      He will not falter in his care for you,
      although he now is busy far away,
      chasing his enemies. But my warriors, 
      my people of the sea, I charge you now
      with the same joyful duty I give Teucer.
      Report to him what I have ordered here—   
      he is to take this boy back to my home,
      show him to Telamon and Eriboea,
      my mother, so he may always comfort them
      in their old age, until the time they reach     
      the yawning caverns of the gods below.
      And none of those who judge our competitions
      nor the man who ruined me will offer       
      my weapons as a prize for the Achaeans.
      No, my son, for my sake you will have to take
      that broad shield from which you get your name.19
      Hold it up high. Shift it by its well-stitched grip,
      my impenetrable seven-layered shield.
      My other weapons you will bury with me
      Come, take the boy, and quickly. Close the hut.
      And don’t keep on weeping here in front.
      How these women really love their wailing!
      Quick now, close up the hut. A skilful healer
      does not howl incantations when a wound
      is crying for the knife.

                                                 When I hear
      that you’re in such a rush, I get afraid
.  700
      The sharp edge on your tongue brings me no joy.

      O lord Ajax, what are you going to do?

      Don’t keep on asking me! No more questions!    
      The best thing now is self-restraint.

                                          But I’m desperate!
      By the gods, by your own son, I beg you—
      do not become a man who now betrays us!

      You pester me too much. Do you not see 
      that I no longer owe the gods my service?

      You must not utter such impieties.

      Speak to those who listen

                                  You will not hear me?

      You have already chatted far too much.

      Yes, my lord, because I’m so afraid.

AJAX [to the servants] 
      Shut the doors. Do it now!

                                  By all the gods, concede!         

      It looks as though you’re thinking like a fool,
      if, at this late date, you still believe
      that what you teach will shape my character.

[The SERVANTS close the main door of the hut, leaving  AJAX inside. TECMESSA, EURYSACES, and
the SERVANTS go into the hut through the side door from which Eurysaces emerged earlier]

      O splendid Salamis,  
      you, I know, lie in the sea,
      whose waves beat on your happy shores,
      a famous place among all men forever
.  720
      I have been held back a long time here
      in misery, for countless months
      still camped out in the fields of Ida,     
      consumed by time and my anxiety,
      expecting to complete my journey
      to implacably destructive Hades.

      And now my troubles multiply,
      a situation hard to remedy,             
      for I must wrestle now with Ajax,
      share my life with that insanity  
      sent from the gods. Alas for me!
      Once, long ago, you sent him out
      filled with the frenzied power of war
      But now his spirit feeds in isolation,
      and his friends acquire from him
      a heavy sorrow. His earlier deeds,
      those acts of highest excellence,  
      have fallen, fallen where he has no friends,
      among the wretched hostile sons of Atreus
.                   [620]

      The years have changed his mother’s hair to white,    740
      and given her old age for company.
      When she learns of his disease,
      that maddening infection of his mind,        
      she’ll start to wail forth her laments.
      She will not chant out melodies 
      sung by the plaintive nightingale
      No. In her mood of desolation
      the sharp-toned music of her grief          
      will scream abroad her anguish.
      Her beating hands will thud down on her breasts,
      and she’ll keep tearing out her old gray hair.

      A man brain sick with mad delusions
      is better off concealed in Hades,     
      a man who by his ancestry
      is ranked the best of the Achaeans,
      who have endured so much. But now,
      no longer following his inbred character,   
      he wanders far beyond himself
.                     [640]
      O you unhappy father Telamon,
      you have yet to hear the heavy curse   
      laid on your son, a curse which up to now
      has never played a part in any life
      nurtured by the sons of Aeacus

[Enter AJAX through the main doors of the hut, carrying a sword. TECMESSA enters after him.]

      The long succession of the countless years
      reveals what’s hidden, then hides it once again,
      and there is nothing we should not anticipate.
      The solemn oath and the most stubborn heart   
      are overcome. In this way, even I,
      who used to be so marvellously strong,          
      like tempered iron, felt my sharp edge dissolve
      at what this woman said. I now feel pity
      leaving her a widow and my son an orphan
      among my enemies. And so I’ll go
      to the bathing waters by the sea shore
      and wash off my defilement. I will deflect
      the weighty anger of the goddess there.
      When I leave, I’ll find some isolated place  
      and then inter my sword, of all my weapons
      the one I most despise. I’ll dig the earth
      where no one else will see. Then let Night    
      and Hades keep it there below the ground
.                    [660]
      For ever since I’ve held it in my grip,
      this gift from Hector, my greatest enemy,     
      I’ve won no prizes from the Argives.20
      That old human saying is true: gifts men get
      from enemies—they are no gifts at all
      and bring them no advantages. And so,
      from this day forward I shall understand
      how to revere the gods. And I will learn
      how to respect the sons of Atreus
.     790
      They are our rulers, so we must obey.
      Why not? Things of the greatest power and awe
      give way to privileged authorities
.                     [670]
      Snow-footed Winter yields to fruitful Summer,
      and Night’s dark vault withdraws the moment Day
      with her white-footed horses fires up the sky;
      the blasts of fearful Winds at last bring rest 
      which calms the groaning seas. All-powerful Sleep
      lets go the one he holds tied up in chains;
      his grasp does not go on forever. As for us,
      how can we mortals not learn self-control?
      I, at least, am only now discovering
      that we should hate our enemies as much   
      as suits a man who will become a friend
.                   [680]
      And when I help a friend, then I will give     
      only what is due a man who’ll not remain
      a friend forever. For common mortals 
      see that the shelter comradeship affords
      is treacherous. Thus, my situation
      will turn out for the best. And so, woman,
      go inside now. Keep praying to the gods
      my heart’s desires will reach fulfilment
      and be carried out to their conclusion

[TECMESSA return into the hut through the side door. AJAX turns to address the CHORUS]

      My comrades, you, too, honour this request.
      Tell Teucer, when he comes, to care for me
      and also to protect your interests
      I am now going where I have to go
.                  [690]
      As for you, carry out what I have said,
      and very soon, perhaps, you will find out
      that, though I’m suffering now, I am at peace
.     820

[AJAX leaves, heading for the sea shore.]

      I feel a sudden thrill of passionate delight,
      which makes me soar aloft with happiness
                  and cry with joy to Pan—        
                        O Pan, Pan—
                  appear to us, sea rover—
            come down from your stony ridge
            on snow-beat Mount Cyllene,  
           you dancing master of the gods—
                        come, O king,
        begin your self-taught dancing steps
                  from Mysia and Cnossos,
            for what I want now is to dance.
            And may Apollo, lord of Delos,  
               race across the Icarian Sea
              and manifest himself to me,
        show his benevolence in everything

        From our eyes Ares has removed  
                  those terrifying agonies.
                        What joy! O joy!
                  For now, O Zeus, now
         the dazzling light of brighter days
               can come to our swift ships           
               which speed across the seas,
        for Ajax is free of pain once more
        and, in a transformed state of mind,
        has carried out appropriate sacrifice
        to all the gods in full, showing them 
        due reverence and strictly following
                 our most important laws.
   The power of time extinguishes all things,
             so I can’t say that anything
             lies beyond all expectation—
 since, in contrast to what we were waiting for,   
         now Ajax’s mind has changed again
          away from actions done in anger
        and his great fight with Atreus’ sons.

[Enter the MESSENGER]

      Friends, the first thing I have to report is this— 
      Teucer has just come from the Mysian heights
.                [720]
      He’s now in the middle of our line of ships,  
      in the generals’ camp. All the Argives 
      are shouting insults at him, all at once.
      They saw him coming and, as he approached,
      surrounded him, hurling accusations    
      from all directions—everyone joined in—
      calling him the brother of  that maniac
      who had conspired against the army
      and saying he could not escape his death—   
      their stones would cut him down completely.
      Things reached the point where men had pulled their swords  
      out of their scabbards and held them fully drawn
.  870
      Then, as the fight was getting out of hand,
      some elders intervened. Their words stopped it.
      But where can I find Ajax to tell him this?  
      I must provide our king a full report.

      He’s not inside. He has just gone away,
      with new intentions yoked to his changed mood.

      O no! No! Then the man who sent me here 
      did so too late, or I have been too slow.

      What’s so urgent? What’s been overlooked?

      Teucer said that Ajax had to stay inside  
      and not leave his hut until he gets here.

      Well, as I told you, Ajax has gone off.
      He intends to follow now what’s best for him,  
      to cleanse away his anger at the gods.

      Your words reveal your complete foolishness,
      if what Calchas prophesies has any merit.

      What do you mean? What information  
      do you have about what’s happening here?

      Well I was there, so I know this much—
      I witnessed it. Calchas left the leaders 
      sitting in their royal council circle,
      moving off from the sons of Atreus
.                [750]
      In a friendly gesture he placed his right hand    
      in Teucer’s palm. Then he spoke to him,
      giving him strict orders to use every means
      to keep Ajax in his hut while this day lasts
      and to prevent him moving anywhere
      if he ever wished to see him still alive.
      For divine Athena’s rage would whip Ajax
      only for that day. That’s what Calchas said
.     900
      Then the prophet added, “Those living things
      which become too large and thus unwieldy
      fall into harsh disasters from the gods—   
      the sort of man who, born from human stock,
      forgets and thinks beyond his mortal state.
      Take Ajax. As soon as he set out from home,
      he revealed his folly, though his father      
      had passed on good advice. For Telamon
      commanded him, ‘My son, with that spear of yours
      you must seek victory, but always fight   
      with some god at your side.’  But then Ajax,
      in a lofty boast, thoughtlessly replied,
      ‘Father, with god’s help even a worthless man   
      can be victorious. But I believe
      I’ll win glory on my own without them.’
      Such was his arrogance. Another time,
      with divine Athena, as she was rousing him 
      and telling him to turn his deadly hands
      against the enemy, he answered her
      with a fearful and sacrilegious speech,
      ‘Lady, stand there with the other Argives.
      The fight will never break the line through Ajax.’
      It was with words like these that he provoked   
      the unremitting anger of the goddess,
      because he does not think as humans should.
      But if he remains alive all day today,
      with god’s help we might be his saviours.”   
      That’s what Calchas said. From where he sat
      Teucer sent me off at once with orders
      which you were meant to follow. If we fail,
      Ajax is done for—that is, if Calchas
      has any skill in prophecy.

CHORUS LEADER [calling into the side door of the hut]
      unfortunate lady born for sorrow,     
      come out and see this man. Hear his news.
      The razor’s slicing closer. I feel its pain.

[Enter TECMESSA through the side door of the hut]

      Why are you making me come out once more
      and leave the chair where I was getting  
      some relief from these unending troubles?

      Listen to this man—he’s come with news
      about what’s happening with Ajax,
  940        [790]
      and it’s disturbing.

                                                      O no!  You there,
      tell me what you have to say. Does this mean
      we’re finished?

                                                 I have no idea  
      how things stand with you. As for Ajax,
      if he is not inside, then I’ve lost hope.

      He’s gone away. So I’m in agony
      about just what you mean.

                                   Teucer gave orders 
      that you keep Ajax safely in his hut
      and do not let him leave all by himself.

      But where is Teucer? Why did he say that?

      He has only just returned. He suspects
      if Ajax goes somewhere he’ll be destroyed.

      That’s horrible! What man told him this?

      Thestor’s son, the prophet, whose words proclaimed
      this very day would bring life or death for Ajax.

      O my friends, protect me from this destiny!
      Some of you, get Teucer here more quickly,  
      while others go off to the western cove
      and to the east, as well, to investigate— 
      find out where Ajax went, when he set off   
      on that ill-fated path. For now I know
      I have, in fact, been totally deceived,
      and Ajax has finally cast away             
      all that affection he once had for me.
      Alas, my son, what am I going to do?
      I can’t stay idle. So I’ll go out there,
      as far as I have strength to go. Let’s leave—  
      and hurry! This is no time to sit around,
      if we want to save a man who’s eager
      for destruction.

                                       I’m prepared to help,
      not just with words, as I will demonstrate.
      If we move fast, we can do this quickly.

[They all exit in various directions, leaving the stage empty. The scene now changes to a deserted part of the seashore.
AJAX enters, carrying his sword, which he sets upright in the sand, with the blade sticking upward.]

      The sacrificial killer is in place,   
      so it will now cut most effectively.
      If a man had time, he might reflect on this.
      It is a gift from Hector, a warrior
      who was a friend most hateful to me,  
      the one I looked on as my greatest foe.21
      Then, this sword is firmly set in Trojan soil,
      land of my enemy, freshly whetted 
      on the iron-eating sharpening stone
.                     [820]
      And I have fixed it in the ground with care,
      so it will kill me quickly and be kind
      Thus, we are well prepared. So, O Zeus,
      in this situation, be the first to help,
      as is appropriate. I’m not asking you
      to give me a grand prize, but for my sake
      send a messenger to carry this bad news
      to Teucer, so he may be the first
      to raise me, once I’ve fallen on the sword
      and covered it with fresh-spilt blood. Don’t let
      the first to spot me be some enemy,
      who’ll throw me out, exposed as carrion food
      for dogs and birds. I appeal to you, O Zeus.
      Grant me this much. I also call on Hermes,
      guide to the world below, to let me sleep
      without convulsions, when by one quick leap  
      I break my bones apart on this sharp blade.
      And I summon those immortal maidens
      to my aid, those who always see all things    
      of human suffering, the dread, far-striding Furies,
      to witness how, in my wretchedness,
      the sons of Atreus worked my destruction
      May they seize on them and destroy them, too,
      with deaths as vile as their disgusting selves
.                       [840]
      Just as they see me killed by my own hand,  
      so let them perish, killed by their own kindred,
      the children they love most. Come, you Furies,
      you swift punishers, devour the army,
      all of them, sparing no one. And you, Helios,
      whose chariot wheels climb that steep path to heaven,
      when you look down over my father’s land,
      pull back those reins of yours, which flash with gold, 
      then tell the story of my miseries,
      my destiny, to my old father
      and to the unhappy one who nursed me.
      That poor lady, when she hears this news,
      will, I think, sing out a huge lamenting dirge
      throughout the city. But for me to weep
      is useless. It’s time to start the final act
.      1020
      O Death, Death, come now and watch in person.
      Yet I’ll be seeing you on the other side,
      and there we can converse. And so to you,  
      the radiant light of this bright shining day,
      I make my final call, and to the Sun—
      I’ll never see that chariot any more.
      O light, O sacred land of Salamis,    
      my home, my father’s sturdy hearth,
      and glorious Athens, whose race was bred
      related to my own—and you rivers,
      you streams, you plains of Troy, I call on you.
      Farewell, you who have nurtured me—to you
      Ajax now speaks his final words. The rest  
      I’ll say to those below in Hades.

[Ajax falls on his sword. Enter the CHORUS in two separate groups from two different directions. Each has a separate leader. They do not see Ajax’s body until Tecmessa finds it.]22

      We work and work,
      and that brings on more work.
      Where have I not walked? Where?   
      No place where I have searched  
      has revealed to me where Ajax is.
      What’s that? Listen! I heard a noise
.        1040       [870]

      It’s us—the crew that shares the ships with you.

      What can you report?

                              We’ve searched everywhere
      on the west side of the ships

      Did you come up with anything?

      Just lots of work. There’s nothing there to see.

      Well, we haven’t seen him either—
      not on the path facing the rising sun

      Who then can lead me on,
      what toiling sons of the sea,
      sleepless in their shacks?
      What nymph on high Olympus
      or from the streams that flow
      into the Bosphorus      
      could say if she has seen somewhere
      fierce-hearted Ajax wandering around?
      It is not fair that after a long search
      and so much effort I can’t find      
      the proper path to him. I cannot see
      where that elusive man might be
.                      [890]

[Enter TECMESSA behind the Chorus. As she moves on, she stumbles across the corpse of Ajax]

      Ahhh . . . .

                             Who cried out?  It sounded close,
      from that group of trees.

                                      O how horrible . . . .

      I see her, the unfortunate young bride,
      Tecmessa, a prize won with his spear— 
      she’s lying there, prostrate with grief, in pain . . .

      I’m lost . . . destroyed . . . my life is over.
      O my friends. . . .

                        What’s happened?

                                                            It’s our Ajax— 
      he’s lying here . . . he’s just been murdered,  
      his body’s wrapped around a buried sword.

      O no! Our dreams of getting home are gone
.                [900]
      Alas, my king, you have destroyed me, too,
      the one who sailed across the seas with you . . . .
      you poor, unhappy man . . . heart-sick lady . . . 

      With Ajax dead like this, we have good cause 
      to wail out our grief.

                                                Who did this?
      With whose help could ill-fated Ajax
      have gone through with this?

                                                              He did it by himself.
      That’s clear. This sword fixed upright in the ground   
      indicates he fell down on top of it.

      Alas, for my own foolishness!
      You bled to death alone, with no friends there 
1080       [910]
      to keep an eye on you. I was so stupid,
      so blind to everything. I took no care.
      And now, now where does stubborn Ajax lie,  
      a man whose very name suggests misfortune.23

      He’s not a spectacle to gaze upon!
      With this cloak I will cover him completely,
      tuck it all around him—for nobody,  
      at least no one who was a friend of his,
      could bear to see him, as he spurts blood
      up his nostrils and from that dark red wound,
      his self-inflicted slaughter. Alas!
      What shall I do? What friend of yours
`                [920]
      will lift you up for burial? Where’s Teucer?   
      How I wish that he would come right now,
      when we need him—if he ever comes
      to care for the body of his brother.
      O ill-fated Ajax, how could a man like you 
      end up like this? Even your enemies
      must find you worthy of a funeral song.

      O you unhappy man, how you were doomed,
      with that unbending heart of yours,
      fated to live out an evil destiny
      of endless suffering
      I know you groaned such hostile words   
      against the sons of Atreus
      all night long and in the morning light,
      the fatal passion of a stubborn heart.
      It’s obvious that when those weapons
      were made the prizes in the competition
      for the finest of our battle warriors,
      that was a potent source of trouble.

      Alas! Alas for me!

                                  Your heart, I know,
      is truly filled with grief.

                              Such misery for me!     

      It’s no surprise to me, my lady,
      you wail and wail again, for you’ve just lost
      a man you loved so much.

                                            You only guess
      how it must feel, but I experience it, 
      and to the limit.

                            That’s true enough.

      Alas, my son, what kind of slavery
      will yoke us now as we move on from here,
      what sort of taskmasters stand over us?

      Ah, now you’ve given voice to your concerns
      about unspeakable actions by those men,      
      the two unfeeling sons of Atreus,
      in this our present grief. May god restrain them!

      But these events would not have taken place
      without the gods’ consent.

                                                Yes—they have set   
      a burden too heavy for us to bear.

      It’s Athena, Zeus’ savage daughter.
      What miseries that goddess has produced,
      and for Odysseus’ sake.

                                                    I’m sure that man,
      who has endured so much, in his black heart
      exults and laughs with lofty arrogance  
      at these insane disasters. Such mockery!
      Such a disgrace! And when they hear of this,
      those two royal sons of Atreus
      will join his merriment
.                  [960]

                                                 Then let them laugh! 
      Let them get their joy from this man’s agony.
      Although they did not sense their need of him
      while he was living, perhaps they’ll mourn his death 
      when they need him in war. Men with brutal minds
      have no idea what fine things they possess
      until they throw them out. Ajax’s death—    
      to me so bitter and to them so sweet—
      at least has brought him joy, for he has got
      what he desired, the death he yearned for.
      So why should these men make fun of him?    
      His death is the gods’ concern, not theirs. No!
      So let Odysseus vaunt his empty jests.
      For them Ajax is dead—for me he’s gone,
      abandoning me to grief and mourning.

TEUCER [heard offstage]
                                            No, no . . . No!

      Be quiet. I think I hear Teucer’s voice.
      His shouts send out a tone which penetrates   
      the heart of this disaster.

[Enter TEUCER]

TEUCER [moving up to Ajax’s body] 
                                             O dearest Ajax,
      my bright source of joy, my brother,
      what’s happened to you. Is the rumour true?

      He’s dead, Teucer. That’s the truth

      Alas! Then I bear a heavy destiny!

      Given how things stand . . . .

                                                    This is too sad.

     . . . you have good cause to grieve.

                                                         This act of his,
      so rash and passionate . . . .

                                          Yes, Teucer,
      passion in excess.

                                                  This is disastrous.
      What about his son? Where on Trojan soil   
      can I find him?

                               He’s in the hut—all by himself.

TEUCER [To Tecmessa]  
      You—bring him here as soon as possible,
      in case he gets snatched by an enemy,
      the way a hunter grabs a lion cub   
      and leaves its mother childless. Go quickly!
      We need your help. For it’s a fact all men
      love to laugh in triumph above the dead,
      when they’re stretched out before them.


      when Ajax was alive, he said that you
      should look after his son, as you’re now doing

      O this is surely the most painful sight
      of anything my eyes have ever seen.
      And, of all the roads I’ve travelled, the worst,
      the one most deeply painful to my heart,   
      is that pathway I’ve just walked along,
      while trying to track you down, dearest Ajax,
      once I’d learned your fate. There was some gossip,
      some tale to do with you. It spread quickly,
      as if sent by a god, to all the Argives.
      It said that you had wandered off and died
      I heard the details far away from here     
      and there I groaned with sorrow. Now I’m here,
      I see it for myself. It breaks my heart
.                    [1000]
      It’s dreadful. Come, take off this covering,   
      so I get a full view of this horror.

[Attendants remove the cloak covering Ajax’s body]

      O that face—it’s so painful to see now,
      so full of bitter daring. How many sorrows   
      you have sown for me by this destruction!
      Where can I go? What sort of people
      will take me in, when I was no use to you  
      in times of trouble? No doubt Telamon,
      who fathered you and me, will welcome me,
      perhaps with smiles and words of kindness,
      when I reach home without you. Of course he will!
      For he’s the kind of man who never smiles,
      not cheerfully, even when things go well.
      A man like that—what will he not say?
      What sort of insult will he not hurl at me—
      a bastard spawned by some battle-prize of his,
      who, because of his unmanly cowardice,     
      betrayed you, dearest Ajax, or by treachery
      tried to seize your power and your home,
      once you were dead. That’s what Telamon will say.
      He’s a bad-tempered man, and his old age  
      has made him harsh—his anger likes to argue
      over nothing. He’ll end up banishing me,
      throw me from the land. What he’ll say of me  
      will make me seem a slave instead of free
.                [1020]
      That’s what will happen if I go back home. 
      Here in Troy I have many enemies,     
      and few ways of getting help. All this
      has happened to me because you’ve been killed.
      It’s a disaster. What am I to do?
      How do I raise you up, you sad corpse,   
      from the sharp bite of this glittering sword,
      your murderer, on which you breathed your last?
      You’ve come to sense how, in good time, Hector,
      though dead, was going to slaughter you. Look here,
      by the gods—see the fate of these two men.
      First, Hector was lashed tight to that chariot rail
      with the very belt Ajax had given him,
      and underwent continual mutilation
      until he gasped his life away.24 Then Ajax
      took Hector’s gift in hand and used it   
      to kill himself in that death-dealing fall.
      Surely a vengeful Fury forged this blade,
      and that harsh craftsman Hades made that belt?
      For my part, I would assert that gods
      have plotted these events—they always do
      in everything that mortal men go through
      If someone finds this view objectionable,
      let him love his own beliefs, as I do mine.

      Don’t stay too long. You need to think
      how we can bury Ajax. And what to say. 
      It’s urgent. For someone coming here,
      a man who is our enemy. It could be
      he comes to mock at our misfortunes, a man    
      who thrives on harm.

                      Who is it—the man you see?
      What member of the army?

                                                              It’s Menelaus,
      the one for whom we launched this expedition. 

      I see him. He’s not hard to recognize
      when he’s so close.

[Enter MENELAUS, with a small escort of soldiers]

                               You there—I order you
      not to take up that corpse for burial.
      Leave it where it is.

                            Why waste your words 
      with such an order?

                                          I think it’s fitting,
      as does the commander of our army.

      Then would it bother you to tell me why 
      you issue this command?

                                                 The reason’s this:
      we hoped that we were leading Ajax here,
      away from home, so he’d be our ally,      
      someone friendly to the Argives, but instead,
      when we saw him more closely, we found out
      he was more hostile than the Phrygians.25
      He planned to destroy our entire army 
      and set off at night to take us with his spear.
      If some god had not frustrated his attempt,
      we would have met the same fate he did—  
      we’d be dead and lying there, struck down
      by shameful fate, and he’d be still alive
.                      [1060]
      But now, it’s clear a god changed these events,
      and so the violence in his heart fell elsewhere,
      on sheep and cattle. And that’s the reason
      there’s no one powerful enough right now
      to take his corpse and set it in a grave.
      Instead it will be tossed away somewhere
      on the yellow sand, food for shore birds.
      Remember that. Curb the anger in your heart
.     1270
      If we could not control him when he lived,
      at least he will obey us now he’s dead.
      Even if you don’t agree, our forceful hands   
      will take charge of him. When he was alive,
      Ajax never listened to a word I said
.                [1070]
      And it’s a fact that when a common man
      thinks it’s appropriate to disobey
      those in command, he truly demonstrates
      his worthless character. Within the city
      the laws could never foster benefits
      if there was no established place for fear.
      Nor can one lead the troops with wise restraint
      where there is neither fear or reverence    
      to act in their defence. So any man,
      no matter how powerful his body grows, 
      must realize he’ll fall, even when
      the harm to him seems trivial. A man
      who has in him a sense of fear and shame     
      is quite secure—you can be sure of that—
      but where there’s room for hostile arrogance    
      and men do what they want, consider how
      a state like that, though it has raced ahead
      with favouring winds, will, in the course of time,    
      sink in the ocean depths eventually.
      And so for me let fear be set in place  
      where it’s appropriate. Let’s not believe
      we can just do whatever we desire
      and not pay the painful consequence.
      These matters fluctuate—Ajax was once
      a man of fiery insolence, but now   
      it’s time for me to manifest my power.
      And thus I warn you not to bury him
.                   [1090]
      If you do, you just might fall yourself  
      into your grave.

      after setting out such well-thought precepts,
      do not become too arrogant yourself
      in dealing with the dead.

                                            Fellow soldiers,
      never again will I be much surprised
      if someone born a nobody goes wrong,
      since those apparently of noble birth  
      can make so many errors when they speak.
      Come, tell me once more from the beginning—
      do you really think it was you personally    
      who led Ajax here an Argive ally?   
      Did he not sail to Troy all on his own,
      under his own command? In what respect
      are you this man’s superior? On what ground
      do you have any right to rule those men
      whom he led here from home? You came to Troy
      as king of Sparta. You do not govern us
.     1320
      Under no circumstance did some right to rule
      or give him orders lie within your power,
      just as he possessed no right to order you
      You sailed here a subordinate to others, 
      not as commander of the entire force
      who could at any time tell Ajax what to do.
      Go, be king of those you rule by right—
      use those proud words of yours to punish them.
      But I will set this body in a grave,
      as justice says I should, even though you
      or any other general forbids it.
      I am not afraid of your pronouncements. 
      Ajax did not join the expedition     
      because that woman was a wife of yours,
      as did those toiling Spartan drudges—no—
      but because he’d sworn an oath to do it.26
      You were no part of it. He never valued
      men worth nothing. And so when you return,
      come back here and bring more heralds with you,
      as well as the commander. Your vain chat    
      is not something that really bothers me,
      not while you stay the kind of man you are.

      When things go badly, I don’t like to hear     
      a tone like that. Even when it’s justified,     
      harsh language stings.

                                             This mere archer
      seems to entertain some big ideas.27

                                                       Indeed I do.
      My skill is not something to underrate.

      My, my—if only you possessed a shield,
      how grand your boasts would be.

                                  Even with no shield,
      I’d get the better of you fully armed
.       1350

      That tongue of yours, how it likes to feed
      the savage spirit inside!

                                        When a man is right,
      he’s entitled to make impressive claims

      Do you mean to tell me it is just  
      for someone to be treated generously
      when he’s killed me?

                       Killed you? Your words sound odd,
      if, after being killed, you are now alive.

      Some god saved me. As far as Ajax knows,
      I’m dead and gone.

                            Since the gods rescued you,
      you should not dishonour them.

                                             You mean  
      I could be violating sacred laws?

      Yes, if you personally intervened
      to prevent the burial of the dead

      That’s not so with a personal enemy
      To bury him would not be right.

                                               What’s that?
      Did Ajax ever march ahead in battle
      as your enemy?

                                              He hated me,
      and I hated him. But you knew that.

      Yes, he did, because you were found out—
      you tampered with the vote which robbed him
.         1370

      The judges beat him in that competition,
      not me.

                       With your deceitful secrecy
      you can conceal so many crimes.

                                                     Words like that     
      could well prove painful to someone I know. 

      Well, I don’t think they will bring more pain
      than we’ll inflict.

                                    Once and for all, then,
      I tell you this: that man will not be buried

      Then hear my answer: Ajax’s corpse
      will have a burial.

                           I have already seen a man
      with a bold tongue urging sailors on   
      to launch a voyage during winter storms.
      But you could hear no sound from him at all
      once the storm got nasty. He hid himself    
      under a cloak and then let the sailors           
      step on him at will. You’re just like him, 
      you and your braggart mouth—a mighty squall,
      even from a tiny cloud, in no time
      will snuff out your constant shouting.

      And I have seen a man stuffed with stupidity,
      whose pride delighted in his neighbours’ grief
.   1390
      Then someone like me, with my temperament,
      faced up to him and said something like this,
      “Hey, you there, don’t harm the dead. If you do,
      you can be sure you’ll find yourself in trouble.”    
      So he warned the paltry fellow face to face. 
      I see him now, and it appears to me
      he is none other than yourself. I trust
      I haven’t talked too much in riddles?

      I’m leaving. It would be a great disgrace
      if men found out I’ve started arguing  
1400      [1160]
      when I could use my power. 

                                        Be off with you!
      It would be a great disgrace to me
      to listen to such silly chattering
      from some fool.

[MENELAUS and his escort leave the way they came]

                                       We’re going to see       
      a major altercation from this argument
      As quickly as you can, Teucer, you should make
      a hollow grave for Ajax, where he’ll rest
      in a dark tomb, and people for all time
      will keep him in their memory.


                                               Ah, just in time—
      his woman and his son have now arrived 
1410       [1170]
      to perform a funeral for this sad corpse
      Come, lad, move over here. Stand there by him.
      Set your hand in supplication on him,
      on your father, from whom you were born
      Kneel down in prayer—hold firmly in your hand 
      locks of hair from me, from her, from you—
      the three of us. These give the suppliant strength.28
      If any member of the army tries 
      to remove you from this corpse by force,
      then may that wicked man become an exile,
      tossed out from his own land in misery,
      and remain unburied, his roots severed
      from his whole race, just as I cut this hair.
      Take this, my boy, and guard it. And don’t let
      any man push you away. Stay kneeling here,
      and hang on tight. You sailors over there,
      don’t stand around the place like women.
      You’re men. Stand on guard here, and protect him,
      till I get back, once I’ve set up the grave.
      I don’t care who has forbidden it
.       1430


      When will our last year here arrive?
      When will the number of those wandering years
      come to an end—and my interminable fate
      to go on carrying this toiling spear     
      across the wide expanse of Troy,
      a sorrow and a shame for Greeks?

      How I wish that man had been swept off
      high into the great sky or into Hades,
      the home that all men share,
      before he’d introduced the Greeks  
      to that war mood which sucks up everyone,
      those weapons of the god of war,
      which every man detests.
      O those toils which just produce more toil!      
      That man has wiped out our humanity.

      He gave me as my portion no delight
      in garlands or full cups of wine,
      no sweet tunes from flutes around me,
      that ill-fated wretch, or in the night
      the joys of sleep. And as for love—alas!—
      he has denied me love. I lie here
      forgotten, my hair always drenched
      from thickly falling dew, ah yes,
      my memories from desolate Troy
.                      [1210]

      Bold Ajax used to be my rampart once, 
      my constant wall against night fears
      and flying weapons aimed at me.
      But he has now become a sacrifice
      to some malevolent deity.
      What pleasure, then, what joy   
      now lies in store for me?
      O how I wish I were back there,
      where the wooded wave-washed headland
      juts out, our guard against the open sea,  
      below the high flat rock of Sunium,
      and we could then greet sacred Athens.29

[Enter TEUCER, in a hurry]

      I’ve just seen commander Agamemnon.
      He coming here, and quickly. So I ran back.
      He’s clearly going to give his blundering mouth
      some exercise.

[Enter AGAMEMNON with an armed escort]

                                       You there—I’ve been told  
      you’ve dared to mouth foul threats against us
      with impunity. I’m talking about you,
      the son of a mere slave, a battle trophy.
      If some well-bred lady were your mother,     
      no doubt your boasts would soar high in the sky,
      and you would strut around on tip toe.
      You are a nobody, and here you act
      the champion for this nonentity.
      In all seriousness you made the claim 
      we voyaged here with no authority,
      as commanders of the troops or of the fleet,
      to give orders to Achaeans or to you,
      since Ajax sailed under his own command.
      Is it not shameful that I have to hear   
      such monstrous insults from the mouths of slaves?  
      This man you shout about with so much pride,
      what sort of man was he? Where did he go
      or stand and fight, where I was not there, too?
      Do the Achaeans have no man but him?
      It seems it was a painful thing we did 
      when we announced to all Achaeans    
      that competition for Achilles’ weapons,
      if in every quarter we appear corrupt, 
      thanks to Teucer, and if you people here   
      never will be satisfied, not even   
      after you have been put down, and yield
      to what most of the judges thought was fair.
      Instead you will no doubt keep hurling at us
      these constant gibes, or from your station in the rear
      treacherously lash out at us. In places                                               
      where such conditions hold you’ll never find
      a settled order based on rule of law,
      not if we discard the men who justly win
      and put in front the ones who lag behind. 
      No. We must prevent such tendencies
.                                                         [1250]
      It’s not the big, broad-shouldered warriors
      who make the most reliable allies—
      it’s men who think—they win out every time.
      One guides a broad-backed ox straight down the path
      with only a small whip. And I can see                                              
      you’ll soon receive some of that medicine,
      unless you get yourself some common sense.
      That man is no longer living—by this time
      he has become a shade, and here you are   
      rashly insulting us, letting your mouth 
      run on and on. You should control yourself.
      Do you not realize who you are by birth?
      Why not let another man step forward,                                                    
      someone free born, to state your case to us
      instead of you? For when you’re speaking,                                         
      I’m not prepared to listen any more.
      To me your barbarian way of speaking
      is quite impossible to understand.

      I wish you two were sensible enough             
      to show some self-restraint. Nothing I say
      would be more useful to the both of you.

TEUCER [addressing the corpse of Ajax]
      Well now, how quickly among mortal men
      grateful thoughts about the dead are gone
      and turn into betrayal. This man here
      can’t even manage a few words, Ajax,
      to celebrate your memory, and yet
      you often risked your life protecting him,
      hefting that spear of yours in battle
.                                                          [1270]
      But now, as you can see, all those great deeds
      are dead and gone, all thrown aside.

[Teucer turns to address Agamemnon]

                                                        And you,     
      you talk a lot of a utter foolishness.
      Have you no longer any memory
      of the time when you were all bunched up
      inside the rampart, almost done for
      in that spear fight—then Ajax showed up,
      all on his own, and kept protecting you,
      with flames already blazing on your ships,
      spreading across the decks right at the stern,
      and Hector leaping high across the ditch,    
      heading for our fleet? Who held him back?                                             
      Was Ajax not the one who managed that,
      the man you claim never went any place
      where you did not go, too? Do you concede
      his actions then, as far as you’re concerned,
      set a high standard? And then another time,                                     
      when he faced up to Hector by himself
      in single combat. No one ordered him.
      He was picked out by lot, and his marker,
      the one he threw in among the others,              
      was not designed to help him not get picked
      It was no lump of moistened clay, no,
      but a light one which would be the first
      out of the crested helmet.30 Yes, Ajax
      was the one who did these things, and I,
      the slave whose mother was a foreigner,                                           
      was there beside him. You miserable man,
      where are your eyes when you go on like this?                                           
      Do you not realize your father’s father,
      ancient Pelops, was a barbarian,                  
      who came from Phrygia? And Atreus,  
      the man who spawned you, wasn’t he the one
      who prepared that sacrilegious dinner,
      and served up his own brother’s children as a meal
      for him to eat?31 And then, as for yourself,
      the mother who bore you came from Crete
.                                     1570
      And her own father caught her having sex,
      screwing some stranger. He abandoned her
      to be killed in silence by a bunch of fish.
      That’s the kind of man you are. How can you  
      insult a man like me about my origins?      
      I am a son of Telamon, who won
      my mother as his consort, his own prize                                                      
      for being the army’s finest warrior.
      She was of royal blood, Laomedon’s daughter,
      the most desirable of all the battle spoils
.                                           1580
      Alcmene’s son gave her to Telamon.
      Since I am nobly born and my parents
      are both noble, too, how could I disgrace
      my own flesh and blood? Ajax is lying here,     
      overcome by all his troubles, and you—   
      aren’t you ashamed to say you’ll toss him out
      without a burial?  Well, think of this—
      if you just throw him out, along with him
      you’ll be casting off three more as well.
      It’s a finer thing for men to see me die                                           
1590     [1310]
      while labouring hard on his behalf
      than fighting for your woman—or should I say
      your brother’s wife? Given what I’ve said,
      don’t think about my safety; look to your own
      For if you make things difficult for me, 
      you’re going to wish you had been more afraid
      and not quite so bold when you confronted me.

[Enter ODYSSEUS alone]

      Lord Odysseus, you’ve come just in time,
      if you’re here to calm things, not make them worse.

      My friends, what’s going on? From a long way off                        
      I heard the sons of Atreus shouting out
      over this brave man’s body.

                                             Lord Odysseus,         
      we have had to listen for far too long                                                          
      to the most shameful language from this man. 
      Is that not reason enough?

                                                                      Well, let’s see—
      I could forgive a man who had been listening 
      to someone else who was abusing him
      and who then joined in a war of insults.

      I did insult him, because his actions
      were a direct affront to me.

                                              What did he do                                             
      to injure you?

                                 He says he will not let
      this corpse remain without a burial.
      He’ll set it in a grave, no matter what I do.

      Well, may someone who’s a friend of yours   
      speak his mind and still remain a colleague  
      the way he was before?

                                     You should speak out
.                                                    [1330]
      I would scarcely be thinking properly
      if I said no. Among the Argives
      I consider you my greatest friend.

      Then listen. In deference to the gods                                               
      don’t be so unyielding you throw Ajax out
      without a burial. You should not let
      that spirit of violence at any time
      seize control of you, not to the extent     
      that you then trample justice underfoot. 
      This man became my greatest enemy
      in all our army on that very day
      I beat him for the armour of Achilles.
      But for all the man’s hostility to me,
      I would not disgrace him. Nor would I deny 
      that in my view he was the finest warrior                                                 
      among the Argive men who came to Troy,
      after Achilles. So if you dishonour him,
      you would be unjust. It would not harm him,      
      but you’d be contravening all those laws 
      the gods established. When a good man dies,
      it is not right to harm him, even though
      he may be someone you hate.

      you mean you’re arguing against me,
      on his behalf?

                                         Yes, that’s what I mean
.                                       1640
      I did hate him, when it was all right to hate.

      Why would you not walk all over him,
      now that he’s dead?

                                             Son of Atreus,
      do not take pleasure in advantages       
      which are dishonourable.

                                   An all-powerful king                                                        
      does not show reverence all that easily

      But he can give out honourable rewards
      to friends when they advise him prudently.

      A good man should obey those in command.

      Why not concede? You’ll still be in control,
      although you let your friends prevail against you.

      Just remember the kind of man he was,
      the one for whom you want to do this favour.

      The man was an enemy of mine, that’s true
      But he was once a noble warrior

      Why are you doing this? Why such respect
      for the dead body of an enemy?

      His excellence moves me to do it,
      far more than his hostility to me.

      Men who act the way you’re doing now                                            
      are unreliable.

                                                      Let me assure you,
      among human beings most are changeable,
      sometimes friendly, then sometimes bitter.

      Are those the sort of men you’d recommend                                            
      that we accept as friends?

                            Well, I wouldn’t recommend
      we choose someone inflexible.

                                                                    All right,
      but now you’ll make us look like cowards.

      No. Every Greek will think we’re being just.

      So you would urge me to give my permission,
      and let this corpse receive a burial?                                                     

      I would. For I myself will someday reach
      the state he’s in, as well.

                                       There we have it.
      All men work to benefit themselves.

      For whom should I make such an effort       
      if not for myself?

                                        We’ll have to announce   
      that you’re the one responsible for this,
      not me.

                               However you do it, it will serve
      to bring you all kinds of advantages.

      Well, in any case, you can rest assured                                                      
      I would grant you a greater favour                                                    
      than this burial. As for this man here, 
      down in the underworld he is my enemy,
      just as he was on earth. But you can do
      whatever you think is appropriate

[AGAMEMNON and his escort leave]

      Given how you have acted here today, 
      Odysseus, any man who now asserts
      that you are not by nature wise is stupid.

      I now proclaim that from this moment on
      I am Teucer’s friend, as much as earlier
      I was his enemy. And I am willing                                                      
      to join with him in burying the dead,
      working with you and omitting nothing
      human beings may need to honour and respect
      their finest warriors.

                                                                 Noble Odysseus,
      I have nothing but praise for what you’ve said
      You have done so much to disprove my fears.
      Of all the Argives, you were the one
      who was his greatest enemy, and yet
      you are the only one to stand by him,
      to lend a helping hand. For when he died                                      
      and you were still alive, you could not bear
      to see such injuries inflicted on him,
      not like that frantic general who was here.
      He and his brother wanted their revenge          
      by casting Ajax off without a grave
      And so may our all-ruling father Zeus,
      high on Olympus, the unforgiving Furies,                                                    
      and Justice, too, who fulfils all things, 
      destroy those evil men with evil deaths,
      just as they tried to rid themselves of Ajax,                                      
      outrageous treatment he did not deserve.
      But you, child of venerable Laertes, 
      I hesitate to let you touch the corpse
      in these funeral rites, for that may well offend       
      the man who died. But as for all the rest,  
      join in with us. If you wish, bring someone,
      any soldier in the army will be welcome.
      I must get all things ready. Odysseus,
      you must know you’ve acted nobly for us.

      That’s what I wished. But if you object                                               
1720     [1400]
      to my participation here with you,
      I’ll defer to what you want and leave.

[ODYSSEUS leaves]

      Enough. Too much time has passed already.
      Hurry now. Some of you scoop out a hollow grave,      
      others set the cauldron high up on the stand,
      with fire all around, so we can start
      the ritual cleansing promptly. One of you,
      bring from his hut the armour he would wear
      behind his shield. And you, too, my child,
      since he’s your father, use those loving arms                                 
1730     [1410]
      with all the strength you have and help me lift him
      His windpipe is still warm, and from it flows
      his own dark spirit. Come then, come all of you
      who say your are our friends, come quickly,              
      move out, and with your efforts honour Ajax.
      There was no one to match his excellence.
      No nobler man has received such honour.

      I know of many things which mortal men
      can see and learn from. But until he meets it,   
      no one sees what is to come or his own fate
.                                  1740     [1420]

 [They all leave, bearing the body of Ajax.]



1. . . of the army: According to Homer, Ajax’s encampment lay at one end of the Argive line, a position more exposed than other parts and hence a mark of Ajax’s courage. Achilles’ encampment was at the other end. The phrase “of the army” has been added to clarify this point. [Back to Text]

2These lines make clear that Odysseus cannot, at this point, see Athena, either because it is still too dark or because she has concealed herself somewhere (or both). Given what happens in a moment, it is not feasible that Athena is simply a disembodied voice. [Back to Text]

3. . . insanely angry: When Achilles, the greatest fighter among the Argive leaders, was killed (shortly before the action of this play) his divinely made armour was set up as a prestigious prize among the Argive warriors. Odysseus and Ajax were the main claimants, and as the result of a vote among the Argive leaders, the weapons were awarded to Odysseus, over the strong objections of Ajax, who, according to Homer, was ranked the finest Argive warrior after Achilles. [Back to Text]

4. . . both commanders: The two commanders are Agamemnon and Menelaus, sons of Atreus and the chief leaders of the Argive forces at Troy. [Back to Text]

5. . . divided up: This detail means that Ajax has killed animals belonging to everyone, since all soldiers were to receive some of the cattle or sheep as battle spoils. [Back to Text]

 6. . . both sons of Atreus: the brothers Agamemnon and Menelaus, the two leaders of the Argive forces at Troy. [Back to Text]

7. . . disrespect: In Homer’s Iliad, Athena consistently supports the Argives, including Ajax, during the Trojan War.[Back to Text]

8. . . son of Telamon: an epithet for Ajax, whose father was Telamon (also the father of Teucer, but not with the same mother). [Back to Text]

9 . . . Sisyphus: according to some legends Odysseus was the son of Sisyphus, a notoriously bad king of Corinth (rather than the son of Laertes, king of Ithaca, as in the Odyssey). This genealogy was a slur used by Odysseus’ enemies. Later in the play, Teucer calls Odysseus “son of Laertes.” [Back to Text]

10 . . . sons of . . . Erechtheus: Erechtheus was a legendary king of Athens who was born from the earth and thus gave the Athenians the claim that they were true natives of the land where they lived (autochthonous). Sophocles is here linking the sailors of Salamis with the residents of Athens (the audience). Salamis is an island just off the coast of Attica, the territory around and belonging to Athens. [Back to Text]

11Teucer: an important Argive warrior, Ajax’s half-brother. [Back to Text]

12. . . ancestral father: Ajax was son of Telamon, son of Aeacus, son of Zeus. [Back to Text]

13Erebus: the gloomy underworld of Hades, the land of the dead. [Back to Text]

14Scamander: the main river flowing near the city of Troy. It is not entirely clear why Ajax calls the river “friendly,” since in Homer the god of the river fought against Achilles in order to help the Trojans. [Back to Text]

15These lines link Ajax’s name in Greek (Aias) with the Greek verb meaning to cry “Alas” (aiai). The similarity is difficult to render precisely in English if one uses the common English name Ajax. The words “Alas for Ajax” have been added in an attempt to make this point somewhat clearer (and the word poetically has been used rather than the more accurate descriptively). [Back to Text]

16. . . father’s excellence: Telamon, father of Ajax, had attacked Troy in an earlier expedition with Hercules and had been awarded as a prize Hesione, a princess of Troy (mother of Ajax’s half-brother Teucer). Ida is a mountain very close to Troy. [Back to Text]

17 . . . another man: Ajax’s point here is that if he had not lost his sanity, he would have killed the sons of Atreus and thus resolved the matter of the voting, which he sees as an injustice, since the result awarded the weapons to Odysseus. [Back to Text]

18 . . . after death: What Tecmessa says here is curious because her family was killed by Ajax himself, as she mentions a few lines earlier. It may be that she is trying to win his sympathy and does not want to remind him of that specifically. [Back to Text]

19 . . . get your name: Eurysaces, the name of the child, literally means “broad shield.” Ajax’s huge shield is described and celebrated in Homer’s Iliad[Back to Text]

20. . . from the Argives: Homer recounts in the Iliad how Ajax received a sword from Hector, the great Trojan warrior-prince, in a mutual exchange of gifts, when their single combat was halted by both armies. [Back to Text]

21In the Iliad, after their single combat had been halted, Hector and Ajax ceremoniously pledged friendship in a mutual exchange of gifts. Yet Hector, as leader of the Trojans and their greatest warrior, was also Ajax’s most important enemy. [Back to Text]

22The suicide of Ajax provides a very rare example in Greek tragedy of a killing performed on stage. It is not clear, however, if it was done in full view of the audience or whether it was concealed somehow by a stage prop (like a bush). Ajax’s body is not plainly visible to anyone who wanders past, since it remains hidden from the Chorus for some time. [Back to Text]

 23. . . suggest misfortune: Ajax’s name, as mentioned above, is very similar to the Greek verb aiai, “to cry alas!” [Back to Text]

24. . . life away: When Ajax and Hector fought in single combat in the Iliad, as mentioned earlier, the fight was stopped and the two warriors exchanged gifts. Ajax gave Hector a fine belt, and Hector presented a sword to Ajax. When Achilles later fought and defeated Hector, he tied Hector’s body to his chariot and desecrated the body by dragging it around in the dirt for days. However, in Homer’s account, Hector is clearly dead before this mutilation of his corpse starts. [Back to Text]

25Phrygians: Phrygia was an extensive area to the east of Troy (now modern Turkey). Here the word seems to mean Trojans generally. [Back to Text]

26. . . oath to do it: Teucer is perhaps splitting hairs here. Ajax was one of the suitors seeking to marry Helen, and, along with all the others, he swore to assist the man Helen chose to marry if called upon. That oath was not directed at Menelaus specifically, but once he became Helen’s husband, it applied to him. [Back to Text]

 27. . . mere archer:  Teucer was one of the finest archers in the Argive forces. Archers were, however, held in some contempt because, unlike spearman, they did not always fight hand to hand but from a distance. [Back to Text]

 28. . . suppliant strength: offering locks of hair at the tomb of the departed was an important part of the funeral ritual, giving power to the prayers of those mourning the dead. [Back to Text]

29Sunium: an important cape near Athens, separating the open sea from the safer waters of the gulf. [Back to Text]

 30. . . crested helmet: In the Iliad, the Achaeans chose a warrior to answer Hector’s challenge to single combat by lottery. Some warriors voluntarily put their tokens in a helmet, the helmet was shaken up, and the warrior whose lot fell out first was chosen (in this case it was Ajax’s token). The reference to the lump of moistened clay refers to the practice of putting in an exceptionally heavy marker, which had less chance of falling out first. [Back to Text]

 31. . . for him to eat: The two brothers Atreus and Thyestes had quarrelled. Atreus invited Thyestes to a dinner of reconciliation and there served him his own children to eat. Thyestes ate them without knowing what he was doing. Atreus then revealed what he had done. [Back to Text]

 32. . . bunch of fish: Agamemnon’s mother, Aerope, was a daughter of Catreus, a descendant of the royal family of Crete. The sexual exploit mentioned resulted in her being sent away to be killed by drowning, but she was instead given to Atreus as his wife. [Back to Text]

 33. . . to Telamon: Alcmene’s son is Hercules, who went with Telamon to attack Troy in an earlier expedition. Laomedon was king of Troy. [Back to Text]

 34. . . his excellence: the phrase which follows in the Greek reads “I mean, when he was living,” which deflates the tribute considerably. For that reason a number of editors have rejected it as spurious. I have followed their lead and omitted the words. [Back to Text]


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